Procedures for Meetings
|History:||Replaces Order no. 94-003 - "Procedures For Meetings"|
|Written by:||Chuck Bokor - Rural Leadership Consultant/OMAFRA|
Table of Contents
- Rules For Meetings
- The Problem With Rules
- Rules For Small Group Meetings?
- Parliamentary Procedure at a Glance
- Consensus: Another Method of Decision Making in Groups
Most groups use some form of parliamentary procedure for their meetings. This Factsheet not only briefly explains proper parliamentary procedure for more formal meetings, but also describes acceptable alternatives for decision-making in smaller groups.
Just as the object of a game gives direction to its players, traditional principles of a democratic meeting guide group members when they gather:
- Every member has rights equal to every other member.
- The will of the majority must be carried out.
- The minority must be heard, and its rights protected.
- Only one topic will be considered at a time.
In order to play a particular game, certain rules for that game must be followed. "Parliamentary procedure" is a set of rules for meetings which ensures that the traditional principles of equality, harmony and efficiency are kept. Robert's Rules of Order, the best-known description of standard parliamentary procedure, is used by many different organizations as their rule book for conducting effective meetings.
The saying "Rules are meant to be broken ..." implies that no rules are perfect. The parliamentary rules used in government provide guidance for a body of hundreds of people meeting daily for months with a great volume of business to conduct.
These same rules are not appropriate for all organizations. How rigid are your meetings? Does too much technical procedure (motions, amendments, seconding, etc.) get in the way of effective decision-making and total group discussion? Too much formality in a meeting will frustrate and discourage members when the proceedings "bog down". Parliamentary rules for meetings are intended to help the group conduct its business (fairly and efficiently), not hinder it!
There are many effective ways for a group to conduct its meetings. Technical procedure, however, should be discouraged in the average group meeting.
Every organization should examine standard parliamentary rules, then interpret and adapt them to its own use. If group members agree that the rules they've developed permit a majority to accomplish the organization's ultimate purpose within a reasonable period of time, while allowing the minority a reasonable opportunity to express its views, then those rules are appropriate.
Meeting procedures for committees, executives and most boards can be much different than those for larger gatherings. Certain formalities are unnecessary when the group size is less than about a dozen members. For example:
- There is no limit to the number of times a member may speak to an issue.
- It is not necessary to address the chair before speaking.
- The chair needn't leave that post in order to speak, make motions or vote. (In fact, he or she may well be the most active participant in discussions and work of the committee.)
- Motions need not be seconded.
- Action can be taken, at times, without the introduction of a motion.
If, however, a small group using these "relaxed" rules discovers that any one of the four basic meeting principles is being abused, then more formal procedures may be reintroduced to the meeting.
If your group follows parliamentary procedure "by the book", the occasional technical question might be asked.
1. What is the proper sequence of steps in having a motion voted on?
A motion has nine possible steps:
- Moved - a proposal from the floor.
- Seconded - another member feels the proposal is worth discussing.
- Stated - by the chair or secretary. Wording is recorded properly and everyone understands the intent of the proposal.
- Discussed - every speaker addresses the chair and must speak only to the motion. Usually, each member may speak only once to a motion except the mover who has first and last chance to speak.
- Amended - changing the wording of the motion by: adding or deleting words, replacing with different words. Each amendment has the same 9 steps as a motion.
- Called - after sufficient discussion, either a motion to end debate or a vote is called at the discretion of the chair.
- Restated - ensures everyone understands what is being voted on.
- Voted - chair calls each option: "All in favour?", "Opposed?" or "Abstaining?"
- Declared - results of the vote are announced by the chair.
2. Can the intent of the main motion be changed by an amendment?
Yes; the main motion may be changed, contrary to the intent of its movers. Only two criteria govern the use of an amendment:
- An amendment may not convert a motion to its direct negative; and
- An amendment must be pertinent to the topic in the main motion. E.g., a motion "to purchase a new typewriter for the secretary" may not have "and to pay the expenses of delegates to the annual meeting" added to it. This amendment clearly has no relationship with the secretary's need for new equipment.
3. How many amendments can be made to a motion?
There are only two kinds of amendments: those pertaining to the proposed motion called "first rank"; and those pertaining to a proposed amendment called "second rank" (amendment to the amendment). Only one amendment of each rank may be on the floor at one time. Any number of amendments may be made to most motions, but no "second rank" amendments may be amended (i.e., an amendment to the amendment to the amendment is not allowed!).
4. How can a meeting start without a quorum?
A quorum is the minimum number of eligible voters that must be present at a meeting to conduct business. This number is designated in the by-laws of the organization and for a board is usually half the voting members plus one. If no quorum is present when the advertised hour of the meeting has been reached, then:
- the presiding officer may dismiss the group (after setting a time for future meeting); or
- the group may agree to proceed informally with the agenda, awaiting ratification of any decisions at a future meeting; or
- the group may discuss any items of interest but make no decisions.
5. How can our constitution be amended?
A good constitution contains provisions for amendment, so the structure and procedures can continually meet the changing needs and purposes of the group.
Usually, a special committee is appointed to review the group's objectives, structure, functions, etc. Copies of its report and recommendations are circulated to all members with the required notice and agenda for the meeting (often the organization's annual meeting). Any amendments proposed during discussion at the meeting require a majority vote for approval, but the motion to amend the constitution needs a two-thirds majority vote for adoption.
6. Who is the presiding officer at meetings?
Often the president is designated in the constitution or by-laws to chair the organization's meetings. In many groups, however, the chair is assigned to the past-president, special moderator, or to a different person each time on a rotating basis. This allows the president to take a lead in debates on policy rather than maintain a position of "supposed" neutrality which is directly contrary to his or her usual role as spokesperson for the group.
7. After considerable debate, we still are not ready to vote on the motion. What can we do?
- A motion to postpone the matter until the next meeting may be in order, so that more information can be gathered.
- A motion to postpone temporarily (to table) allows a motion to be set aside until later in the meeting, allowing more urgent business to be dealt with, permitting amendments to be drafted, or allowing time for implications of the motion to be checked. A motion to take from the table brings it back before the meeting.
- The motion may be withdrawn at the request of its mover, but only if no member present objects.
8. What happens when someone yells "Question!" from the floor?
Someone yelling "Question!" from the floor indicates that he or she wants the motion put to a vote. Only if the chair feels that the motion has had reasonable debate and most members are ready to vote, can he or she call the question (i.e., "All those in favour?", etc.).
Another way to close discussion on a motion is for someone to make a motion to call for a vote. This motion must be seconded and requires a two-thirds majority vote in order to proceed with a vote on the motion on the floor.
9. How should a committee report be accepted by an organization?
A motion to "receive" the report means that the organization is not committed to any of the conclusions or recommendations contained in it. (An example of such a report would be the monthly, unaudited treasurer's report.)
A motion to "adopt" the report in whole or in part commits the organization to some or all of the recommendations of the report, and often implies some action to be taken.
10. Sometimes while one motion is being considered, an alternative motion might be the better one. How can it be presented?
- The movers request permission from the presiding officer to read out the alternative motion.
- The movers of the original motion are asked if they will withdraw their motion, with the unanimous consent of the meeting.
- If the original motion is withdrawn, then the alternative motion is moved.
- If the original motion is not withdrawn, then the movers of the alternative motion inform the meeting that their motion will be moved if the original is defeated. They thus urge the members to vote against the original motion.
How many meetings does your group hold in a year to discuss issues or problems? How much time is spent in each regular meeting making decisions or solving problems? Does the discussion end with a proposal for action?
One rule in parliamentary procedure that can hamper a free and easy exchange of ideas is: "Discussion can take place only after a motion is proposed". In fact, a motion is a proposed course of action, a solution to a problem, or a decision. By focusing the group's attention on a solution before realizing the scope of the problem, the group may be voting on something that is entirely inappropriate. Is the "cart before the horse"?
A simple method of ensuring an effective group decision is to build a motion through consensus. This method eliminates a complicated amendment procedure after an initial motion has been proposed. It also ensures that a large majority will agree with the motion rather than the mere 51% required by a typical voting procedure.
The following process can be used throughout the meeting for every problem the group needs to discuss.
Step 1.Describe the issue or problem confronting the group.
- State the problem clearly and concisely. If it is complex, then write it out.
Step 2. Gather all information relevant to the problem.
- All pertinent facts and ideas about the problem need to be heard in order to make a wise decision.
- Distinguish between facts and opinions.
A decision can often be made right away. However, action may need to be deferred so that additional information can be gathered.
Step 3. List all possible solutions or actions.
- Explore alternatives.
- Be creative. Use brainstorming techniques to generate new ideas, from every member.
Step 4. Choose the best possible solution.
- Use a process of elimination; refine and combine parts of your list in step 3.
Step 5.Make a decision.
- Formulate a statement of general agreement or consensus; or
- Develop a motion and vote on it.
- Then, record the results in the minutes.
A group using formal parliamentary procedure can easily use the consensus method of decision-making. A motion should be made from the floor to move to an "informal session". The entire group then carries on a free discussion until the matter has been thoroughly discussed, with few formalities, using the consensus steps 1-5. A motion to "rise" from this informal session returns the group to its formal proceedings.
Reaching consensus is not always easy. Some individuals become frustrated with the time taken for group decision-making. Also, this method relies on the discretion of the chair who eventually decides when a general agreement or common "feeling" has been reached. In some situations, if only extremely vocal and confident individuals dare to challenge the majority view, then the minority opinion is in danger of being suppressed.
Using consensus, however, can result in higher quality decisions. The complicated rules of parliamentary procedure are reduced while maximum member participation is encouraged. In the end, group decisions lead to group action!
Whichever method your group chooses to make its decisions or conduct its meetings, the four principles of a democratic meeting must be followed.
As more formal procedures are adopted, more complicated rules are followed. There is little reason for any one person to attempt to learn every rule of parliamentary procedure. To know where to find the answers is enough. The following references may help answer any questions not addressed in this Factsheet.
Parliamentary Procedure at a Glance. Jones, O. Garfield. Appleton-Century-Crafts, Inc., 1932.
Procedures for Meetings and Organizations. Kerr, M. Kaye and Hubert W. King. Carswell Legal Publications, 1984.
Robert's Rules of Order. Robert, Henry M. Tutor Press, 1978
Relevant OMAFRA Factsheets
- Conducting Elections.
- Effective Meetings.
- Roles and Responsibilities of Organization Directors.
- Starting an Organization.
|To do this:||You say this:||May the speaker be interrupted?||Do you need a second?||Discussion?||Can it be amended?||What vote is required?|
|1. Set time for next meetings||I move that we meet again at... (time, place)||No||Yes||No||Yes||Majority|
|Adjourn the meeting||I move that we adjorn.||No||Yes||No||No||Majority|
|Call an intermission||I move that we recess for...||No||Yes||No||Yes||Majority|
|Complain about heat, noise, etc.||I rise to a question of privilege.||Yes||No||No||No||None|
|Temporarily postpone discussion of a motion||I move to table the motion.||No||Yes||No||No||Majority|
|End debate (and amendments)||I move that we close debate and vote on the motion.||No||Yes||No||No||2/3|
|Set a time limit for deabte||I move that debate be limited to...||No||Yes||No||Yes||2/3|
|Postpone discussion for a certain time||I move to postpone the discussion until...||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Majority|
|Study an issue more closely||I move to refer the matter to committtee||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Majority|
|Change the wording of a motion (or amendment)||I move to amend the motion by...||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Majority|
|Postpone discussion indefinitely||I move that we postpone this matter indefinitely.||No||Yes||Yes||No||Majority|
|Introduce new business (main motion)||I move that...||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Majority|
The motions listed above are in order of precedence such that the first one has to be dealt with before the last one. Below, there is no order among the motions, but each is dealt with as it arises.
|To do this:||You say this:||May the speaker be interrupted?||Do you need a second?||Discuss?||Can it be amended?||What vote is required?|
|Protest breach of rules or conduct||I rise to a point of order||Yes||No||No||No||None|
|Protest a ruling of the chair||I appeal from the chair's decision||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||Majority|
|Request information/Parliamentary procedure inquiry||I rise to ask for information (or make a parliamentary inquiry)||Yes||No||No||No||None|
|Suspend the rules temporarily||I move to suspend the rules so that...||No||Yes||No||No||2/3|
|Discuss a matter previously tabled||I move to take from the table||No||Yes||No||No||Majority|
|Mover of motion wishes to withdraw it||I'd like to withdraw my motion||No||No||No||No||Majority|
|Reconsider a hasty action||I move that we reconsider the vote on...||Yes||Yes||only if original motion allowed it||No||Majority|
|Eliminate a previous meeting's motion||I move that we rescind...||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||2/3|
|Close nominations||I move nominations be closed||No||Yes||No||Yes||2/3|
|Re-open nominations||I move nominations be re-opened||No||Yes||No||Yes||Majority|
|Avoid considering an improper matter||I object to consideration of this matter||Yes||No||No||No||2/3|
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